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Showing posts with label Programming. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Programming. Show all posts

Friday, March 9, 2012

Exam 70-640: TS: Windows Server 2008 Active Directory, Configuring Command-line Reference


Exam 70-640: TS: Windows Server 2008 Active Directory, Configuring

Command-line Reference : Applies To: Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Vista

To open an elevated command prompt, click Start, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator

You can use the Windows command reference to familiarize yourself with new and enhanced command-line tools, to learn about the command shell, and to automate command-line tasks by using batch files or scripting tools.

The following sections contain information about the syntax and usage of the command line tools mostly for Active Directory Related which helps on Exam 70-640.

Adprep : Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008

Extends the Active Directory® schema and updates permissions as necessary to prepare a forest and domain for a domain controller that runs the Windows Server® 2008 operating system.

Adprep.exe is a command-line tool that is available on the Windows Server 2008 installation disc in the \sources\adprep folder, and it is available on the Windows Server 2008 R2 installation disk in the \support\adprep folder. You must run adprep from an elevated command prompt. 

In Windows Server 2008 R2, Adprep is available in a 32-bit version and a 64-bit version. The 64-bit version runs by default. If you need to run Adprep on a 32-bit computer, run the 32-bit version (Adprep32.exe). 

Certreq : Certreq can be used to request certificates from a certification authority (CA), to retrieve a response to a previous request from a CA, to create a new request from an .inf file, to accept and install a response to a request, to construct a cross-certification or qualified subordination request from an existing CA certificate or request, and to sign a cross-certification or qualified subordination request. 

Certutil : Applies To: Windows Server 2008

Certutil.exe is a command-line program that is installed as part of Certificate Services. You can use Certutil.exe to dump and display certification authority (CA) configuration information, configure Certificate Services, back up and restore CA components, and verify certificates, key pairs, and certificate chains.

Certutil <-parameter> [-parameter]
-dump Dump configuration information or files
-deny Deny a pending certificate request
-revoke Revoke a certificate
-isvalid Display the disposition of the current certificate
-CAInfo Display information about the certification authority
 -CRL  Publish new certificate revocation lists (CRLs) [or only delta CRLs]
 -installCert Install a certification authority certificate
-renewCert Renew a certification authority certificate
-schema Dump the schema for the certificate
-db Dump the raw database
 -back up Backup Active Directory Certificate Services
-backupDB Backup the Active Directory Certificate Services database
-restore Restore Active Directory Certificate Services
-restoreDB Restore the Active Directory Certificate Services database
-restoreKey Restore the Active Directory Certificate Services certificate and private key 
 -dsPublish Publish a certificate or certificate revocation list (CRL) to Active Directory
 -pulse Pulse auto enrollment events
 -verifykeys Verify a public or private key set
-verify Verify a certificate, certificate revocation list (CRL), or certificate chain
-sign Re-sign a certificate revocation list (CRL) or certificate
 
Csvde: Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2

Imports and exports data from Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) using files that store data in the comma-separated value (CSV) format. You can also support batch operations based on the CSV file format standard.

Csvde is a command-line tool that is built into Windows Server 2008 in the %windir%/system32 folder. It is available if you have the AD DS or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) server role installed. To use csvde, you must run the csvdecommand from an elevated command prompt. 

Dcdiag : Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008

Analyzes the state of domain controllers in a forest or enterprise and reports any problems to help in troubleshooting. 

As an end-user reporting program, dcdiag is a command-line tool that encapsulates detailed knowledge of how to identify abnormal behavior in the system. Dcdiag displays command output at the command prompt.

Dcdiag consists of a framework for executing tests and a series of tests to verify different functional areas of the system. This framework selects which domain controllers are tested according to scope directives from the user, such as enterprise, site, or single server.

Dcdiag is built into Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008. It is available if you have the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) server role installed. It is also available if you install the Active Directory Domain Services Tools that are part of the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). 
 
To use dcdiag, you must run the dcdiag command from an elevated command prompt.

Dcpromo : Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2

Installs and removes Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS).

For examples of how to use dcpromo, see Examples.

Syntax: dcpromo [/answer[:] | /unattend[:] | /unattend |  /adv] /uninstallBinaries [/CreateDCAccount | /UseExistingAccount:Attach]  /? /?[:{Promotion | CreateDCAccount | UseExistingAccount | Demotion}]

Dcpromo.exe parameters:

Parameter
Description
/answer[:]
Specifies an answer file that contains installation parameters and values.
/unattend[:]
Specifies an answer file that contains installation parameters and values. This command provides the same function as /answer[:].
/unattend
Specifies an unattended installation in which you provide installation parameters and values at the command line.
/adv
Performs an install from media (IFM) operation.
/UninstallBinaries
Uninstalls AD DS binaries.
/CreateDCAccount
Creates a read-only domain controller (RODC) account. Only a member of the Domain Admins group or the Enterprise Admins group can run this command.
/UseExistingAccount:Attach
Attaches a server to an existing RODC account. A member of the Domain Admins group or a delegated user can run this command.
/?
Displays Help for Dcpromo parameters.
/?[:{Promotion | CreateDCAccount | UseExistingAccount | Demotion}]
Displays parameters that apply to the dcpromo operation. For example, dcpromo /?:Promotion displays all of the parameters that you can use for a promotion operation.

Djoin : Applies To: Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2

Provisions a computer account in a domain and requests an offline domain join when a computer restarts

Remarks

  • You can run Djoin.exe only on computers that run Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2. The computer on which you run Djoin.exe to provision computer account data into AD DS must be running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2. The computer that you want to join to the domain must also be running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2.
  • By default, the Djoin.exe commands target a domain controller that runs Windows Server 2008 R2. However, you can specify an optional /downlevel parameter if you want to target a domain controller that is running a version of Windows Server that is earlier than Windows Server 2008 R2.

examples:

To provision a computer account named computer1 in the domain contoso.com and save the resulting metadata blob in a file named offlinedomainjoin.txt, run the following command at an elevated command prompt:
djoin /provision /domain contoso.com /machine computer1 /savefile offlinedomainjoin.txt

Dnscmd:  Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2

A command-line interface for managing DNS servers. This utility is useful in scripting batch files to help automate routine DNS management tasks, or to perform simple unattended setup and configuration of new DNS servers on your network.

Dsadd: Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008

Adds specific types of objects to the directory.

Dsadd is a command-line tool that is built into Windows Server 2008. It is available if you have the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) server role installed. To use dsadd, you must run the dsadd command from an elevated command prompt. 

Dsdbutil: Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008

Performs database maintenance of the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) store, facilitates configuration of Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) communication ports, and views AD LDS instances that are installed on a computer.

Dsdbutil is a command-line tool that is built into Windows Server 2008. It is available if you have the AD LDS server role installed. To use dsdbutil, you must run the dsdbutil command from an elevated command prompt. 
For most of the Dsdbutil commands, you only need to type the first few characters of the command name instead than the entire command. For example, you can type either of the following commands to activate an AD LDS instance named instance1:
activate instance instance1
ac i instance1
 

Dsamain: Applies To: Windows Server 2008

Exposes Active Directory data that is stored in a snapshot or backup as a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server. 

Dsamain.exe is a command-line tool that is built into Windows Server 2008. It is available if you have the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) server role installed. It is also available if you install the Active Directory Domain Services Tools that are part of the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). 

To use Dsamain, you must run the dsamain command from an elevated command prompt. To open an elevated command prompt, click Start, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator.

Dsmgmt: Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008

Facilitates managing Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) application partitions, managing and controlling flexible single master operations (FSMO), and cleaning up metadata that is left behind by abandoned Active Directory domain controllers and AD LDS instances. (Abandoned domain controllers and AD LDS instances are those that are removed from the network without being uninstalled.)

Dsmgmt is a command-line tool that is built into Windows Server 2008. It is available if you have the AD LDS server role installed. To use dsmgmt, you must run the dsmgmt command from an elevated command prompt. 

Dsmod: Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008

Modifies an existing object of a specific type in the directory.

Dsmod is a command-line tool that is built into Windows Server 2008. It is available if you have the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) server role installed. To use dsmod, you must run the dsmod command from an elevated command prompt. 

Dsrm : Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008

Deletes an object of a specific type or any general object from the directory.

Dsrm is a command-line tool that is built into Windows Server 2008. It is available if you have the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) server role installed. To use dsrm, you must run the dsrm command from an elevated command prompt. 

Fsutil: Applies To: Windows 7, Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Vista

Performs tasks that are related to file allocation table (FAT) and NTFS file systems, such as managing reparse points, managing sparse files, or dismounting a volume. If it is used without parameters, fsutil displays a list of supported subcommands.
Description: noteNote :
You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group to use fsutil. The fsutil command is quite powerful and should be used only by advanced users who have a thorough knowledge of Windows operating systems

Gpupdate: Applies To: Windows 7, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Vista

Updates Group Policy settings.

For examples of how this command can be used, see Description: http://i.technet.microsoft.com/Hash/030c41d9079671d09a62d8e2c1db6973.gifSyntax :
gpupdate [/target:{Computer | User}] [/force] [/wait:] [/logoff] [/boot] [/sync] [/?]

Ldp: Applies To: Windows Server 2008

Performs operations such as connect, bind, search, modify, add, delete against any Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-compatible directory, such as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). Ldp is an LDAP client that you use to view objects that are stored in AD DS along with their metadata, such as security descriptors and replication metadata.

Ldp is built into Windows Server 2008. It is available if you have the AD DS server role installed. To start ldp, click Start, click Run, type ldp and then click OK.

Ldifde: Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2

Creates, modifies, and deletes directory objects. You can also use ldifde to extend the schema, export Active Directory user and group information to other applications or services, and populate Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) with data from other directory services.

Ldifde is a command-line tool that is built into Windows Server 2008. It is available if you have the AD DS or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) server role installed. To use ldifde, you must run the ldifde command from an elevated command prompt. 

Ntdsutil : Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2

Ntdsutil.exe is a command-line tool that provides management facilities for Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) and Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS).

You can use the ntdsutil commands to perform database maintenance of AD DS, manage and control single master operations, and remove metadata left behind by domain controllers that were removed from the network without being properly uninstalled. This tool is intended for use by experienced administrators.

Ntfrsutl Overview :Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2003 with SP2

Ntfrsutl.exe: File Replication Utility

This command-line tool dumps the internal tables, thread and memory information for the NT File Replication Service (NTFRS). It runs against local and remote servers.
The recovery setting for NTFRS in Service Control Manager (SCM) can be critical to locating and keeping important log events on the computer. This tool provides a convenient method of reviewing those settings.

Repadmin: Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2

Repadmin.exe helps administrators diagnose Active Directory replication problems between domain controllers running Microsoft Windows operating systems.

Repadmin.exe is built into Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. It is available if you have the AD DS or the AD LDS server role installed. It is also available if you install the Active Directory Domain Services Tools that are part of the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). 

For more information, see How to Administer Microsoft Windows Client and Server Computers Locally and Remotely (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=177813). 
To use Repadmin.exe, you must run the ntdsutil command from an elevated command prompt. To open an elevated command prompt, click Start, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator 
You can use Repadmin.exe to view the replication topology, as seen from the perspective of each domain controller. In addition, you can use Repadmin.exe to manually create the replication topology, to force replication events between domain controllers, and to view both the replication metadata and up-to-dateness vectors (UTDVECs). You can also use Repadmin.exe to monitor the relative health of an Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) forest.
Important: During the normal course of operations, there is no need to create the replication topology manually. Incorrect use of Repadmin can adversely impact the replication topology. The primary use of Repadmin is to monitor replication so that you can identify problems, such as offline servers or an unavailable local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) connection.

Repadmin also requires administrative credentials on each domain controller that is targeted by the command. Members of the Domain Admins group have the sufficient permissions to run repadmin on domain controllers in that domain. Members of the Enterprise Admins group are, by default, granted membership in the Domain Admins group in each domain in the forest.
You can also delegate the specific permissions that are required to view and manage replication status.

Some Coommands of repadmin:
Repadmin /kcc : Forces the Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) on targeted domain controllers to immediately recalculate the inbound replication topology.
Repadmin /prp  :Specifies the Password Replication Policy (PRP) for read-only domain controllers (RODCs).
Repadmin /syncall :Synchronizes a specified domain controller with all replication partners.

Wbadmin: Applies To: Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Vista

Enables you to back up and restore your operating system, volumes, files, folders, and applications from a command prompt.

To configure a regularly scheduled backup, you must be a member of the Administrators group. To perform all other tasks with this command, you must be a member of the Backup Operators or the Administrators group, or you must have been delegated the appropriate permissions.
You must run wbadmin from an elevated command prompt. (To open an elevated command prompt, click Start, right-click Command Prompt, and then click Run as administrator.)

Sunday, January 22, 2012

To get a job as Integration Systems Support Analyst this may help you

As a fresh graduate If you have a few options to choose from 

1- BizTalk
2- Sharepoint
3- Business intelligence
4- .Net
 

Which one to select for the career start. All these technologies are very good and have good scope in future. I will advise you to chose field based on you interest. However, 1,2&3 are tool specific where as .Net is more generic and will help you build your skill in many areas but will also need more effort and more competition. 

- Biz talk have been Microsoft's only product for integration and SOA(Service Oriented Architect) development. You will have to integrate multiple systems and create resource adapters for talking to them. This will require extensive development using .Net WCF technology.
(Integration Layer)

- SharePoint is Microsoft' Content Management System, for building sites, portal for collaboration. It is very much in demand. You will have to build the Web Parts for building portals.
(Presentation Layer)

- Business Intelligence is very advance and specialized field. Data warehouse, Mater Data Management, Business Analytics are very much in demand.
(Data layer)

.Net -  is the core foundation of the above products and field. You will need .Net for any kind of development in all above fields (except Business Intelligence which will be using the tools).      
Here, I presume you will be building application from end-2-end presentation layer, middleware, integration and data-access layer.

I read an article about workflow in http://grounding.co.za/blogs/brett/archive/2007/11/03/high-level-overview-to-what-workflows-are.aspx which i think is pretty well said. check the article below

Tech Talk with Brett Maytom

High level overview to what workflows are

Do you get the feeling of "Workflow ... workflow ... workflow .... aaargh .... wtf"?  Whilst chatting to many students, I find that there is a lot of ambiguity around workflows and what they are and where to use them.  I will be writing a few blogs on the topic, this topic what a workflow is.  As the technologies being used are gearing to workflows, I will discuss the different technologies and where to use what in another post.

What is a workflow?

A workflow is simply a reliable and repeatable set of activities that drive a process. In our businesses we create business silos or departments to deal with different processes,  e.g. sales is responsible for performing activities to get new business,  provisioning is responsible for delivery of goods, hr is responsible for managing staff and IT for performing tasks to provide supporting technologies.  Within these departments there are many processes each aimed to perform a different task.  We may even divide these processes into geographic locations for branches.
Business is all about process!
A workflow is a business process that has a set of characteristics:
  • It has a set of events that will cause the workflow to start.
  • It may need certain information to start such as a document artifact.
  • A workflow has an owner.
  • A workflow has a business benefit.
  • A may workflow delivers an outcome.
  • A workflow may have several activities.
  • A workflow is deterministic through a set of decision structures
  • A workflow activity may be automated by a system or manually done by a person, thus having someone\something responsible for executing the process.
  • A workflow is traceable and can be audited.
  • A workflow may start another process and even wait for an outcome.

Why is workflow hard?

An organization has thousands of processes and normally these processes are understood in the minds of individuals but not well documented, thus leaving room for ambiguity.  Many people use subjective reasoning and experience to make decision which leads to inconsistencies as the process is not well defined in their minds.  Unfortunately many decisions made and actions taken result in consequences, thus causality.  Thus one event (cause) results in a related activity (effect).  In business many effects are counterproductive as a result of bad decisions in previous processes.
System development and defining a workflow is hard as computer logic expects explicit decision structures and processes, there can not be any ambiguity or any step left out.  As a technical resource developing a workflow, the business process needs to be implemented exactly and it is our task is to extract the process from the business user.  However, most business users have never given great thought to the process as the live on a wing and a prayer dealing with causality on a daily basis.  This often yields to flawed processes which are technically hard coded, resulting in a flawed system.
A flawed business process will result in a system workflow that automates the process, thus a botch-up results in an automated botch-up.

An application is workflow

No matter how you look at it we ultimately write applications to facilitate or automate some business process.  The activities the user performs on the system, is part of some business process.
The application itself is a set of methods that create objects and execute other methods based on logic. The statements within each method also forms part of a process of tasks.  Is this not a workflow.  Windows events may occur, triggering off processes, such as clicks and timers.  This leads us to a complex design issue as we are actually dealing with many different types of workflows.

Types of workflows

Business workflow

Our organizations are full workflows that you, me and our coworkers carry out each and every day.  All of these activities require us to do something in a set manner with deterministic outcomes. These tasks may require us to discuss a topic with others, perform manual work, validate and check, make a decision based on criteria or even capture information into a system.

Human Interface Workflow

A single system attempts to guide the user through different screens with deterministic outcomes.  If you click on a button a certain dialog will appear, and if you click on another button something else will appear.  As we navigate through the system, information is passed from screen to screen thus attempting to guide you through a process.
The challenge is that applications facilitate many processes activities, and the user needs to learn what to click in order to resume the process.  The user either needs to capture some information to start off a process within the application, alternatively the user needs to query or read some information to resume a manual process.
The human interface workflow thus is used to assist the user navigating through your application and retaining state of what the user is doing.  You may want to think of your application as a giant wizard interface with screens and reports that you allow the user to navigate through by clicking or typing things.
In writing a human workflow, technical tasks such as retrieving or storing data, checking spelling is done through System workflow's.  There is a coupling between the Human Interface and the System Workflow, i.e. events in the HIW trigger off system workflows.

System Workflow

Systems either monitor user events (clicks) or system events (timers, data arrival, i/O)  and based on the event a sequence of code activities (methods) execute.  These activities normally perform both technical overhead tasks such as opening connections to databases, beginning and committing transactions, to computations, decision trees and even storing and retrieving data.
As I am writing for technical people, each and every method you write should do a single task (activity), there may also be a need for you to write a method that chains the calling of other methods.  Your system workflow is the nuts and bolts that make the application do what it is supposed to do and this is normally good old fashioned programming.

System-to-System workflow

In our organization we cannot expect to have one system as we have divisions such as departments with different processes, these differences require different systems that allow a user to do his/her job.  Many times a single person may interact with different systems as they are performing different processes.  This is normal in business.
However, when looking at the business holistically, there are many commonalities that are shared across systems, take for example the customer.  You need a system to capture and identify the customer, however the customer is used by sales, by accounting, by credit control, by provisioning and many other departments. 
It is impossible virtually impossible to have one system that runs the entire business, as we may custom develop systems in different time frames, we may also purchase off-the shelf systems.  There is no single system that can run the entire business, from web presence and portal, document manage, CRM, Financial, HR and Payroll, Security and authentication, printing, Communication, Data base, Business intelligence and forgive me for not going on for pages and pages.
Typically systems were done at a departmental and role level and required manual communication when discussing with other departments,  e.g. Sales receiving an order and forwarding it to billing, credit and provisioning.
With technology today we want to interchange data between our systems and automatically trigger off workflow on those systems so that we stop human miscommunication.  This is what system to system workflow are all about.   This can be tricky as security, information format and interchange methods come to play, i.e. What information, how does it look, how do we protect it, how do we send it and and in what format do we send it.

Business-to-business workflow

Business-to-business workflows are ultimately System-to-system workflows  but they now are going to vendors, partners and customers which are different legal entities.  There are challenges of using standards to totally decouple technology, not everyone is using MS products and all of their products.  There are legal issues to worry about and things such as non-repudiation.  Business-to-business workflow are normally more legally intense and I feel that they need to be managed differently.

Sunday, August 7, 2011

Got 15 minutes? Give Ruby a shot right now!

Got 15 minutes? Give Ruby a shot right now!

Ruby is a programming language from Japan (available at ruby-lang.org ) which is revolutionizing the web. The beauty of Ruby is found in its balance between simplicity and power.

http://tryruby.org is an extremely well produced site for anyone who is interested in learning about Ruby on Rails. It has a number of different lessons that teach you the basics in a new and interesting way. Enjoy.

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