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To give customers the most compelling IT Support experience possible.

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Our mission is simple: make technology an asset for your business not a problem.

Our Values

We strive to make technology integrate seamlessly with your business so your business can grow. As your technology partner, when your business grows ours will grow with you, therefore, we will work hand in hand with you to support your growth.

Our Values

We develop relationship that makes a positive difference in our customers Business.

Our Values

We exibit a strong will to win in the marketplace and in every aspect of our Business

Windows 11 is here . all new features and exciting things to come ..

  Windows11 is here. From the official release that details new features for windows11


 
Windows11 is also secure by design, with new built-in security technologies that will add protection from the chip to the cloud, while enabling productivity and new experiences. Windows 11 provides a Zero Trust-ready operating system to protect data and access across devices.

The team have worked closely with OEM and silicon partners to raise security baselines to meet the needs of the evolving threat landscape and the new hybrid work world.

 


Windows 11 unlocks the full potential of your system’s hardware, putting some of the latest #gaming technology to work for you. Like: DirectX 12 Ultimate, which can enable breathtaking, immersive graphics at high frame rates; DirectStorage for faster load times and more detailed game worlds; and Auto HDR for a wider, more vivid range of colors for a truly captivating visual experience.



Also Windows 11 will be bringing #Android apps to Windows for the first time. Starting later this year, people will be able to discover Android apps in the Microsoft Store and download them through the #Amazon Appstore – imagine recording and posting a video or using Khan Academy Kids for virtual learning right from your PC.



Windows 11 will be available through a free upgrade for eligible Windows 10 PCs. To check if your current Windows 10 PC is eligible for the free upgrade to Windows 11, visit Windows.com to download the PC Health Check app


Here is the official release details  Link https://blogs.windows.com/windowsexperience/2021/06/24/introducing-windows-11/


AD Active Directory Interview Questions and Answers

What is Active Directory?

Active Directory (AD) is a directory service developed by Microsoft and used to store objects like User, Computer, printer, Network information, It facilitate to manage your network effectively with multiple Domain Controllers in different location with AD database, able to manage/change AD from any Domain Controllers and this will be replicated to all other DC’s, centralized Administration with multiple geographical location and authenticates users and computers in a Windows domain

What is LDAP and how the LDAP been used on Active Directory(AD)?

What is Tree?
Tree is a hierarchical arrangement of windows Domain that share a contiguous name space

What is Domain?
Active Directory Domain Services is Microsoft’s Directory Server. It provides authentication and authorization mechanisms as well as a framework within which other related services can be deployed

What is Active Directory Domain Controller (DC)?
Domain Controller is the server which holds the AD database, All AD changes get replicated to other DC and vise vase

What is Forest?
Forest consists of multiple Domains trees. The Domain trees in a forest do not form a contiguous name space however share a common schema and global catalog (GC)

What is Schema?
Active directory schema is the set of definitions that define the kinds of object and the type of information about those objects that can be stored in Active Directory
Active directory schema is Collection of object class and there attributes
Object Class = User
Attributes = first name, last name, email, and others

Can we restore a schema partition?


Tel me about the FSMO roles?
Schema Master
Domain Naming Master
Infrastructure Master
RID Master
PDC
Schema Master and Domain Naming Master are forest wide role and only available one on each Forest, Other roles are Domain wide and one for each Domain
AD replication is multi master replication and change can be done in any Domain Controller and will get replicated to others Domain Controllers, except above file roles, this will be flexible single master operations (FSMO), these changes only be done on dedicated Domain Controller so it’s single master replication

How to check which server holds which role?
Netdom query FSMO

Which FSMO role is the most important? And why?
Interesting question which role is most important out of 5 FSMO roles or if one role fails that will impact the end-user immediately
Most armature administrators pick the Schema master role, not sure why maybe they though Schema is very critical to run the Active Directory
Correct answer is PDC, now the next question why? Will explain role by role what happens when a FSMO role holder fails to find the answer

Schema Master – Schema Master needed to update the Schema, we don’t update the schema daily right, when will update the Schema? While the time of operating system migration, installing new Exchange version and any other application which requires extending the schema
So if are Schema Master Server is not available, we can’t able to update the schema and no way this will going to affect the Active Directory operation and the end-user
Schema Master needs to be online and ready to make a schema change, we can plan and have more time to bring back the Schema Master Server

Domain Naming Master – Domain Naming Master required to creating a new Domain and creating an application partition, Like Schema Master we don’t cerate Domain and application partition frequently
So if are Domain Naming Master Server is not available, we can’t able to create a new Domain and application partition, it may not affect the user, user event didn’t aware Domain Naming Master Server is down

Infrastructure Master – Infrastructure Master updates the cross domain updates, what really updates between Domains? Whenever user login to Domain the TGT has been created with the list of access user got through group membership (user group membership details) it also contain the user membership details from trusted domain, Infrastructure Master keep this information up-to-date, it update reference information every 2 days by comparing its data with the Global Catalog (that’s why we don’t keep Infrastructure Master and GC in same server)
In a single Domain and single Forest environment there is no impact if the Infrastructure Master server is down
In a Multi Domain and Forest environment, there will be impact and we have enough time to fix the issue before it affect the end-user

RID Master –Every DC is initially issued 500 RID’s from RID Master Server.  RID’s are used to create a new object on Active Directory, all new objects are created with Security ID (SID) and RID is the last part of a SID. The RID uniquely identifies a security principal relative to the local or domain security authority that issued the SID
When it gets down to 250 (50%) it requests a second pool of RID’s from the RID master.  If RID 

Master Server is not available the RID pools unable to be issued to DC’s and DC’s are only able to create a new object depends on the available RID’s, every DC has anywhere between 250 and 750 RIDs available, so no immediate impact

PDC – PDC required for Time sync, user login, password changes and Trust, now you know why the PDC is important FSMO role holder to get back online, PDC role will impact the end-user immediately and we need to recover ASAP
The PDC emulator Primary Domain Controller for backwards compatibility and it’s responsible for time synchronizing within a domain, also the password master. Any password change is replicated to the PDC emulator ASAP. If a logon request fails due to a bad password the logon request is passed to the PDC emulator to check the password before rejecting the login request.

Tel me about Active Directory Database and list the Active Directory Database files?
NTDS.DIT
EDB.Log
EDB.Che
Res1.log and Res2.log
All AD changes didn’t write directly to NTDS.DIT database file, first write to EDB.Log and from log file to database, EDB.Che used to track the database update from log file, to know what changes are copied to database file.
NTDS.DIT: NTDS.DIT is the AD database and store all AD objects, Default location is the %system root%\nrds\nrds.dit, Active Directory database engine is the extensible storage engine which us based on the Jet database
EDB.Log: EDB.Log is the transaction log file when EDB.Log is full, it is renamed to EDB Num.log where num is the increasing number starting from 1, like EDB1.Log
EDB.Che: EDB.Che is the checkpoint file used to trace the data not yet written to database file this indicate the starting point from which data is to be recovered from the log file in case if failure
Res1.log and Res2.log:  Res is reserved transaction log file which provide the transaction log file enough time to shutdown if the disk didn’t have enough space

Active Directory restores types?
Authoritative restore
Non-authoritative restore

Non-authoritative restore of Active Directory
Non-authoritative restore is restore the domain controller to its state at the time of backup, and allows normal replication to overwrite restored domain controller with any changes that have occurred after the backup. After system state restore, domain controller queries its replication partners and get the changes after backup date, to ensure that the domain controller has an accurate and updated copy of the Active Directory database.
Non-authoritative restore is the default method for restoring Active Directory, just a restore of system state is non-authoritative restore and mostly we use this for Active Directory data loss or corruption.

How perform a non-authoritative restore?
Just start the domain controller in Directory Services Restore Mode and perform system state restore from backup

Authoritative restore of Active Directory
An authoritative restore is next step of the non-authoritative restore process. We have do non-authoritative restore before you can perform an authoritative restore. The main difference is that an authoritative restore has the ability to increment the version number of the attributes of all objects or an individual object in an entire directory, this will make it authoritative restore an object in the directory. This can be used to restore a single deleted user/group and event an entire OU.
In a non-authoritative restore, after a domain controller is back online, it will contact its replication partners to determine any changes since the time of the last backup. However the version number of the object attributes that you want to be authoritative will be higher than the existing version numbers of the attribute, the object on the restored domain controller will appear to be more recent and therefore, restored object will be replicated to other domain controllers in the Domain

How perform a authoritative restore?
Unlike a non-authoritative restore, an authoritative restores need to Ntdsutil.exe to increment the version number of the object attributes

What are Active Directory Partitions can be restored?
You can authoritatively restore only objects from configuration and domain partition. Authoritative restores of schema-naming contexts are not supported.

How many domain controllers need to back up? Or which domain controllers to back up?
Minimum requirement is to back up two domain controllers in each domain, one should be an operations master role holder DC, no need to backup RID Master (relative ID) because RID master should not be restored

Job interview - reducing anxiety

 
Many of us find job interviews to be anxiety inducing events. For some, this is a real problem as it creates nervousness, the interviewee can stammer through the answers, and get so worked up that they quite simply fail the interview (even before they have started). If you have a job interview coming up, there are many tools to use that will help put your mind at ease, and keep you focused.

Prepare and take notes in with you

Those who take a file and interview notes with them into interview will benefit from an increased feeling of confidence. Remember, taking notes into an interview isn't frowned upon - it's a smart way of preparing for a meeting. Having notes will give you an instant boast of confidence, a support mechanism, and will also ensure that you are much better equipped for each stage of the interview.

Prepare for the interview

Complete research into the company, its market, competitors and what the job you are applying for entails. Try to obtain a full job description from the recruiting manager prior to the interview. Prepare your file one or two days before the interview (giving yourself plenty of time). Ensure you include a copy of your resume, job description, supporting documentation and notes. Know that you will need to sell you skills, and ensure you have these skills noted mentally or physically on paper. Remember, the more preparation you do, the more confident and calm you will be on the day.

Try to relax, it's only an interview

An interview is merely a way for two people to determine if they will be a good match for each other, and the job interview is just a sharing of information. It's also as much about you interviewing them, as it is about them interviewing you. Try not to lose site of this point.

It's so important that you don't worry about your personality, and how you are coming across. Stick to you interview plan and interview notes.


Tips Tricks to reduce physical and emotional stress

  • Practice simple breathing techniques;
  • If possible, undertake 30 minutes worth of excercise in the morning (but no less than 2 hours before the interview);
  • Listen to relaxing music and calm yourself;
  • Do not smoke or drink caffeine for at least 2 hours before;
  • Make constructive conversation with friends;
  • If you feel yourself getting tense in the interview, be conscious of this and try to relax your shoulders.

And finally...

Try to learn from each interview. Ask for feedback and try to adjust your style to suit a wider audience. If you still feel interview nerves is a weakness, then try to seek professional help from a trained advisor. It will be money well spent.

DNS Interview Questions and Answers Windows Server

What is Domain Name System (DNS)?
Domain Name System is a service to resolve the Name to IP Address and IP Address to Name, DNS also used to locate servers, computers and services on your network and DNS is backbone of Active Directory that can be installed on windows server as a standalone or Domain Controller

What is Static and Dynamic DNS Record?
Manually created DNS entry called static record and the record created automatically by the system/DHCP itself called Dynamic DNS Record, static records are not easy to manage as the IP adress changes will not update automatically, we have to update manually

What is Dynamic DNS (DDNS)?
Dynamic DNS or DDNS is a method of updating a DNS record, DDNS is preferred most of the organization since it’s easy to maintain and you always get the latest updated IP address of the servers and computers

What are the record types in DNS?
DNS has many types of records, A record or host records are mostly known to everyone, will explain all the record types in DNS

A (Address) Maps a host name to an IP address, Compute1 pointing to 192.168.100.100, When a computer has multiple adapter cards and IP addresses, it should have multiple address records.
CNAME (Canonical Name) Sets an alias for a host name. Record pointing to different record like www.support.windowstricks.in can have an alias as www.windowstricks.in, so both the records are pointing to same page

MX (Mail Exchange) Specifies a mail exchange server for the domain, used for mail delivery which allows mail to be delivered to the correct mail servers

NS (Name Server) Specifies a name server for the domain, which is authoritative servers for the respective DNS Zone and allows DNS lookups within all DNS zones

PTR (Pointer) Creates a pointer that maps an IP address to a host name for reverse lookups.
SOA (Start of Authority) Declares the host that is the most authoritative for the zone and, as such, is the best source of DNS information for the zone. Each zone file must have an SOA record (which is created automatically when you add a zone)


What is Caching Only Server?
Caching-only servers are those DNS servers that only perform name resolution queries, cache the answers, and return the results to the client. Once the query is stored in cache, next time the query in resolved locally from cached instead of going to the actual site.

What are a Forward and Reverse Lookup?
  • Forward Lookup: Searching for A record, all the name query is send to the DNS server against to IP address, it is generally said a forward lookup.
  • Reverse Lookup: Searching for PTR records whicho provides a reverse lookup process, enabling clients to use a known IP address during a name query and look up a computer name based on its address

What is Primary DNS zone?
This is the read and writable copy of a zone file in the DNS namespace. This is primary source for information about the zone and it stores the master copy of zone data in a local file or in AD DS. Dy default the primary zone file is named as zone_name.dns in Windows\System32\DNS folder on the server
If its AD integrated zone then all the records are stored in Domain partition on the Domain Controllers

What id Secondary DNS zone?
This is the read only copy of a zone file in the DNS namespace. This is secondary source for information about the zone and it get the updated information from the master copy of primary zone. The network access must be available to connect with primary server. As secondary zone is merely a copy of a primary zone that is hosted on another server, and secondary zone cannot be stored in AD


What is stub DNS Zone?
A stub zone is a read only copy of a zone that contains only those resource records which are necessary to identify the authoritative DNS servers for that particular zone, stub zone also used like DNS Forwarding and its practically used to resolve names between separate DNS namespaces. This type of zone is generally created when a corporate merger or acquire and DNS servers for two separate DNS namespaces resolve names for clients in both namespaces.

A stub zone contains:
The start of authority (SOA) resource record, name server (NS) resource records, and the glue A resource records for the delegated zone.
The IP address of one or more master servers that can be used to update the stub zone

What is Aging and Scavenging?
Aging and Scavenging is a DNS server service which supports a mechanism for performing clean-up and removal of stale resource records which can accumulate in zone data over time. It helps to maintain the dynamic DNS environment by regular deletion of stale resource records from the DNS database. Some problems associated with stale records are: unnecessary space utilization long zone transfers, wrong resolution of the client query due to stale data, and accumulation of stale records on the DNS server can degrade its performance. These stale records problems can be resolved by the aging and scavenging features. Before using aging and scavenging features of DNS some conditions needed are:
1) Aging and scavenging features must be enabled on the DNS server and on the zone. By default, they are not enabled.
2) Resource records must be added dynamically to the zone or manually modified to be used in operations of aging and scavenging.

Aging
Aging is the process of identifying stale DNS records. It uses two intervals:
1) Non-Refresh interval
2) Refresh interval

Non-Refresh interval
This is the time period in which the resource records cannot be refreshed. It can be used to reduce the replication traffic in this time period to avoid the replication of the same information again.

Refresh interval
This is the time period in which the resource records can be refreshed.
Resource record refresh: This is a DNS dynamic update without changing the hostname and IP address.
If the non-refresh interval and refresh interval are 7 days, then the resource records can be considered as stale if not refreshed after 14 days. If the non-refresh interval and refresh interval are elapsed, then the resource records can be refreshed as long as they are not removed from the DNS zone. Aging uses a resource record time-stamp to identify if the record is stale or not.
Resource records having timestamp zero: These records are static records that are not stale records.
Resource records having timestamp not equal to zero: These records are dynamic records which represent the hour of the last refresh date.

Scavenging
Scavenging is the process of removal and clean-up of stale resource records from the DNS zone. The stale resource records will be removed only if the scavenging is enabled on the resource record,  where the resource record exists and at least one DNS hosting where the primary copy of the resource records exists.
Scavenging can be set in three places:
1) Individual record
2) Zone
3) Server
If scavenging is set on zone it will work only for dynamic records. It will work for manual entries only if it’s enabled for the zone. Once scavenging is set on zone this will enable it on DNS servers. The DNS server where the scavenging option enabled is responsible to scavenge the record. The server will log a DNS event 2501 to indicate the number of scavenging record and it will log a DNS event 2502 if no record where scavenged.

Scavenging formula:
Record timestamp+no refresh interval for zone+refresh interval for zone
If the sum of these values are greater the server time (current date and time on the DNS server) no action is taken and records are not deleted from the zone. If the sum is less than server time the records are deleted.

Aging and scavenging process for a sample record
Consider a DNS host “host-a.example.microsoft.com” register its host resource record on the DNS server where aging and scavenging are enabled. The DNS server set a time stamp for this record based on the current server time at the time of registration. The DNS server does not refresh the resource record for the duration of non-refresh interval. It can refresh the record before non-refresh interval if any update, such as the IP address of the host changes and it resets the time stamp accordingly. The DNS server refreshes the record after the non-refresh interval expires. During and after the refresh interval if any update comes it accepts and refresh the record. The server examines the subsequent scavenging and each record is compared to server time to determine whether the record should be removed and this is done by using scavenging formula.

Job Interview Tips - What Not to Say in a Job Interview

 
Interviewing for any job can create stress, and for some, can result in a lack of good judgment when it comes to what to talk about. Many interviewees with good intentions, can end up saying things that are inappropriate or inaccurate, which ultimately costs them the job.  
  • Do not speak negatively about your past employer or organisation. If asked why you are leaving or why you left, simply say that you are looking for a new opportunity. Talking badly about your former boss, company or co-workers will come across as negative.
  • If you are uncomfortable about providing private and /or sensitive information about your current employer (such as financials), avoid a negative response by saying “I’m not sure my company would like me to disclose that information". Ideally, if talking about financials, you can use a range instead of exact amounts. For example, company turnover being $35Mil, then you can provide a range of "$30Mil to $40Mil". This is a more helpful strategy.
  • Avoid discussing salary until the interviewer brings it up. Typically, this will come up after you have been offered the position, or at the end of the interview. Immediately asking “How much will I get paid?” or asking "When is the next pay rise" could have the interviewer believing that money is a number one factor.

  • Do not say anything that is not true about your past work history. The interviewer will most likely cross reference your past jobs,so you will eventually get caught out and lose the job. Always be honest about your experiences, history and abilities. If the interviewer asks why you were fired from a job, be forthcoming but explain how you have learned from the mistake. Never lie and say that you left of your own accord, if indeed you were released.

  • Do not interrupt the interviewer. Always let them lead the conversation and set the pace of  the interview. If you interrupt or try to lead, you will come across as pushy and someone who doesn't demonstrate good listening skills. Stop yourself from over talking!

  •  In an interview, you want to remain professional, yet friendly. But don't get too friendly and share too many details. Keep your answers simple, concise and to the point so that you avoid babbling on unnecessarily and giving away personal information. Always remember, this is an interview!

Job interview - Questions to Ask




It's important to ask questions in an interview. These should be questions to clarify job specifics through to key points of interest which will enable you to determine whether this is the right job, employer and culture fit for you.


  • What are the most important skills and characteristics your
  • What made you decide to join the company? (providing they don't own the business!)
  • What has been the pattern of growth for the company over the past 5 years
  • What is the future growth plan of the company?
  • Why is this job open?
  • How many people held this position over the recent years?
  • How does this position fit into the overall organisation?
  • Who will I be reporting to
  • Where is the job located by way of company structure?
  • What type of training is required for this position? How long is the training period?
  • What other training opportunities are provided?
  • Where are the greatest opportunities for growth within the company?
  • Who are the company's major competitors?
  • Who are your major customers? Are they mostly local, regional or global
  • What will my priorities be? What will be my first assignment?
  • What issues/challenges am I likely to face when I first take on the role?


Remember: write some questions down before interview and during the interview. Don't try to leave everything to memory. It's also down to you to have the confidence to ask the questions, and to ask question that you feel will be relevant in helping you make your decision. It's a two way process where both you and the interviewer need to know more.

ATO Scam Alert

 🚨 SCAM ALERT 🚨 Be on the lookout for a new phone #scam claiming your #tax file number (TFN) has been suspended!


Recorded phone calls claiming to be from the #ATO and other government agencies are trying to trick people into providing personal information. These scammers will tell you there’s a legal case against you, and if you don’t follow instructions and provide the information requested, you’ll be arrested.

⚠️ Don’t follow the prompts, and don’t provide the information requested. We will never send unsolicited pre-recorded messages to your phone, or threaten you with immediate arrest. If you’re ever unsure whether an #ATO interaction is genuine, hang up and phone our scam hotline on 1800 008 540. Warn your family and friends to stay alert and visit scam alerts page to learn more:



Phishing and spear-phishing method of stealing confidential information

 In the recent Stay Smart Online, Alert email advise that there is a significant increase in the past few months of COVID themed phishing scams, using all sorts of lures to try and trick people into handing over personal details.


#Phishing and spear-phishing is a method of stealing confidential information by sending fraudulent messages to a victim, through email or message platforms. They remain among the MOST common method used by malicious #cyber actors to target Australians.

Since the #pandemic's outbreak, the Government’s #Scamwatch has received over 3,060 coronaviruses themed scam reports with over $1,371,000 in reported losses.

#Phishing campaigns can be sent via email, SMS, social media, instant messenger or a phone call. They can look extremely convincing, often imitating legitimate messages from trusted senders in government or business.

See attached are an example of #scam #email that I usually get in my (test) mailbox. Look at the subjects all trying to attract you in a way to click a link or provide details. Especially now Corona and Tax return season they are more active than before.

Hope this helps to Stay safe and on alert don't lose your money or info to the scammers.

Beware of COVID style scam

 Beware of COVID style scam. This is phone scam but COVID email, app, and web scam also present which I have shared previously


It goes like this
Scammer: Good morning, According to our system, you are likely to have been in close proximity to someone who has tested positive for COVID-19. This means that you now need to self-isolate for 14 days and take a COVID-19 test.

'OK. Can you tell me who that person was?'

Scam : 'I'm not able to tell you that. That is confidential information.

Right. Um... so ....

Scam : But you do need to be tested within the next 72 hours. So can I just get the best mailing address so that we can send a kit to you?'

Ok (gives address)

Scam : Thank you - and I just need to take a payment card so that we can finalize this and send the kit to you.'

Sorry - a payment card? I thought this was all free?' - RED ALART here people

Scam : No - I'm afraid not. There is a one-off fee of $50 for the kit and test results. Could you read off the long card number for me, please, when you're ready.'

No - that's not right

Scam: I'm afraid it is. Can you give me the card number please - this is very important, and there are penalties for not complying.'

You should Put the phone down.

This is how #scammers work. And vulnerable people will fall for it.

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